Sunday, 10 December 2017

In Sewing News Today...

Today marks the end of Make Something Week hosted by Greenpeace and Fashion Revolution. I love that it was held in December, when consumerism is at it's peak, as a reminder that we can make things with the stuff that we already own.

The best lessons I learned this week are that if it's make out of quality fabric it's worth saving or making something new with it and recycled light bulbs really do make fixing holes in socks and tights an easier process. If I had more time, I would have loved to do more recycling projects but well, it's that busy time of the year.  I've been busy sewing up Christmas stocking stuffers for someone special when free time allows.

Talking about busy... I had tickets to the theatre this afternoon and I'm part of the group that likes to dress up when going to such a function. It's not everyday that one takes in the theatre, it just seems right to mark the occasion in this way. So, I had big sewing plans as I was really looking forward to this outing.

Paco Peralta's skirt, Vogue 1567, in a plaid silk just seemed festive enough for a Christmas themed theatre event. Sadly, it is still in the the above state of being. Life just got busy and the big plans for a holiday themed outfit fell to the side. And I didn't even go to the theatre as Mama R cancelled because she wasn't feeling well. I really hoped that it would have been a fun afternoon out for Mom but I guess, like the skirt, it wasn't meant to be.

I still want to make this skirt. Although, it looks like it will become a 2018 sewing project and maybe in another fabric choice. There isn't any rush to make it now.

In other sewing news, I've gone and done something that I thought I would never do. I went shopping for fabric online. I know, I almost fainted just typing those words. Earlier this year one of the local fabric stores closed down. The trend is not a recent one and over the last twenty-five years, I've watched and shopped at many closing sales in this city. But this most recent one, that hurt the most. It was a large fabric store with unmatched customer service (except for this time) where they would gladly help with a special order and it was centrally located. Since it closed down, prices at one of the remaining fabric stores have increased drastically. At first, I thought it was laughable when man-made fabrics were showing up with $70.00/metre price tags. No one will buy it even if it went on sale at 70% off, I thought. But then it wasn't funny anymore. I wasn't laughing, I move onto disappointment and then disgust that they were trying to take advantage of the shrinking competitive market.   

This weekend on CBC's Marketplace, they did an episode on Baby supplies comparing Canadian / U.S. retailers.  There was quite the difference, most of which were shocking. It echoed the increases seen at the fabric stores.  The program interviewed an associated business professor from the University of Toronto who points out that from the point of the consumer, it is likely that the price increase is not viewed as justified, rather they would likely be viewed as outrageous. Added was that  from the point of the retailer, when they don't find much competition, they're going to charge as much as they can get away with. And that is what appears to be happening here. If you go to the website of this national fabric store and continue to the online store do you know what you find, cheaper prices than what you will find at the local store. Even if you put in shipping! It is outrageous!

But thankfully, there is a whole other world of sewing products out there. In light of the changes that are happening in the local retail scene it just makes sense to look elsewhere. I've been picking sewing patterns online since Simplicity was no longer offered and the membership discount was reduced on the remaining brands. It only made sense to order them directly from the pattern companies. Why not fabric?  

L to R:  Hemp / organic cotton jersey, wool melange sweater knit,
and cotton cashmere featherweight knit.  

I have to say that I'm really impressed with Emma One Sock Designer Fashion Fabrics. I've read so many good reviews of their fabric and they're mentioned in many sewing articles. And you can request samples before making a final decision. It is not just the competitive prices that I'm impressed with, it's the quality that I wouldn't be able to find here. That wool melange sweater knit is sublime. It would be perfect for another Simplicity 8529. The hemp / cotton blend is quite lovely too. They are going on my Christmas wish list for now since sewing time is quite scarce at the moment.

Well, that is all in sewing news today.

Happy Sewing!

Saturday, 9 December 2017

Make Something Week: Wool Scarves

I am a maker.
A maker is someone who transforms things s/he already owns into something new by sharing, up-cycling swapping, repairing, and creating.  Make something celebrates creative, resourceful and social people that enjoy the experience of making something new out of their old things for the people we love.  

Today's project is a recycled project.

Prior to the transformation:

I found this 100% wool knit skirt at a second hand store. It's in perfect condition and it even fits. 

But it is not my style. The lacy knit fabric at the lower portion of the skirt is see-through, it could benefit from a lining or a slip. Or if someone had the figure to pull it off, a pair of leggings underneath.  But that is not me.

I picked it up for the fabric and because it was large enough to transform it into something else. 

It is a 100% virgin wool fabric with no piling and no damage and best part

is that I picked it up for a song.  

I would have refashioned it into a sweater but I went the easy route instead. This project is dictated by need. Since, I'm on a natural fibre vs man-made fibre experiment at the moment I'm in need of a wool scarf. You know, something to keep the winter chill at bay.  

This one is a single layered scarf with serged lengthwise edges. 

And a second scarf has the lengthwise seam stitched and then turned over to create a tube scarf. I can easily turn this into an infinity scarf but I quite like it this way.  

There is still more fabric to consider.  This is a quarter of the yoke of the skirt. It's not like the lace portion, rather it is a beefy knit wool that would be perfect for a couple of matching mittens. I just have to find a pattern.  Or maybe hand warmers.

Happy Sewing!  

Friday, 8 December 2017

Make Something Week: Repairing Is Caring!

As Make Something Week continues yesterday morning's prompt was to repair items that we already own and to share it on Instagram. Goodness knows, I'm not a fan of mending or alterations. If I knew I would be challenged to mend during this week I don't know that I would have been so quick to sign up for this challenge. Kidding. Somewhat. I might not be overly excited about mending but it does feel good when the task is done.  

I repaired these tights that I wore once a couple of months ago. I wasn't about to throw them out after one wear. A little Fray Check™, some silk thread and a recycled light bulb did the trick. But wait, it didn't stop there!  

This shirt has been sitting in my closet for awhile. It would often make it out and onto my body only to be thrown on the bed as I tried to find something else to wear because it was a bit snug around the mid-section.  

I removed the front tucks and it's nice to be able to move in this shirt. I know I'll be wearing this shirt again and I think I might have to revisit out-of-print McCall's 8943 now that it fits well without the tucks.  

Happy Sewing!  

Monday, 4 December 2017

Make Something Week: Up-Cycled Top

I am a maker who is participating in Make Something Week (December 2 to 10th) hosted by Greenpeace and Fashion Revolution. 
A maker is someone who transforms things she already owns into something new by sharing, up-cycling swapping, repairing, and creating.  Make something celebrates creative, resourceful and social people that enjoy the experience of making something new out of their old things for the people we love.  
My second entry for this week is a top that I saved from being donated. Or worse ending up in the trash.

Prior to the transformation:

Back-in-the day when I bought RTW clothes (and was a lot slimmer), this tee-shirt make it into my wardrobe. Actually, two of them came home with me. They're from the Kate Spade Saturday line and they were a deal. But that wasn't the reason why I picked up two, it was the quality of cotton fabric, it's beautiful and beefy, unlike the fabric used in t-shirt found in the stores today. I shortened one of them and kept the other as a back-up. But sadly, this one shrank and the other was snug, unlike back-in-the-day when I first purchased these.  

It came to the point that I had to decide if I were going to donate both of them or try to save one. I decided on trying to save one. 

So, I opened the sides all the way up to the sleeves and then cut a gusset from the other tee-shirt.  

And believe it or not, I can now breathe when I wear it. Being a maker is a good thing.   


I know not everyone will have two of something but this fix can be done with a contrasting fabric as well to add a fun colour blocked feature.

Happy Sewing!

Saturday, 2 December 2017

Make Something Week: Up-cycled Bags!

I am a maker.
A maker is someone who transforms things she already owns into something new by sharing, up-cycling swapping, repairing, and creating.  Make something celebrates creative, resourceful and social people that enjoy the experience of making something new out of their old things for the people we love.  
And I'm participating in Make Something Week (December 2 to 10th) hosted by Greenpeace and Fashion Revolution. So here goes my first entry, up-cycled bags.

Prior to the transformation:

My parents saved these flour bags from way back-in-the-day when groceries were packed in boxes or paper bags and people recycled glass pop bottles for a refund. You know, back before there was an environment levy applied to beverage purchases. We used to get money back when we brought our empty bottles back to the store to be recycled. But I digress... 

Back in the good old days they made things to last, including flour bags. I've made these vintage flour bags into grocery / farmer market bags to replace some of those "reusable" shamelessly self-promoting grocery store named bags which didn't last very long.

However, I was able to recycle the handles from the ripped store-bought bag and use it on the new one.  

The fabric is a canvas weight cotton and these will be fabulous because they're washable.

The blue straps were picked out of my notion drawer left over from some back-pack sewing projects.

I'm ready to go shopping! Now, what to pick up for dinner?

Happy Sewing!  

Update:  These are a hit with my friends and the Trinidad one has already found a new home. Who knew these could make good Christmas gifts as well.  

Friday, 1 December 2017

Jumpsuit: Vintage McCall's 6437

Sometimes it's nostalgia that dictates the next sewing project. That's what happened when jumpsuits starting re-appearing the pattern books. I longed to make one but there wasn't a pattern that made me forget about a jumpsuit I made back-in-the-day.

That is when the search for out-of-print (OOP) McCall's 6437 began. It took awhile to find this pattern in my size range and when I finally found a copy, I couldn't wait to get to work on it.  

I went with view B but changed the sleeves to those on view A, considering how my arms are not as slender as they were back in 1993. What I forgot is how low cut the front is and that maybe I should have adjusted the shape of the neckline. I think there will be an infinity scarf project coming soon.   

I really like the high waistline and the lined bodice. The only thing missing, besides a more modest neckline, are pockets. The plan was to make this one to test the fit before cutting it out in a British wool. Now, I'm changing my mind. I like the jumpsuit but if I'm going to make another one it will be view C for the summertime, something I can wear with a tee-shirt. I think I'll save the wool fabric for another project. 
The fabric is a cotton sateen stretch. It was pretreated with a tumble through the washing machine, dryer and then a good pressing before cutting it out.  

There weren't too many changes made to the pattern. Of course, the length had to be shortened and then more length came off when I tried them on. I cut the pattern in the largest size at the side seams but then had to cut it back down to a size 14. I kept the neckline, shoulder and armhole as a size 14 from the start. I also changed the regular zipper to an invisible zipper which required changing the order of the pattern instructions.   

It's a fun addition to the wardrobe, if not all that practical for the season. I will likely wear it when kicking around the house or to run errands when the weather warms up. 

The Stats:

Fabric:  3 metres cotton sateen

Interfacing:  0.40 fusible

Needle:  1 serger needle

Zipper:  18" invisible zipper

Basting tape:  1.15 metres double-sided basting tape

Pattern:  OOP McCall's 6437

Additional Tools and Supplies:  Cutting table, pins, scissors, measuring tape, thread clippers, sewing machine, zipper foot, invisible zipper foot, blind hem foot, serger, tweezers, iron, ironing board, tailor's ham, pressing mitt, and a sleeve ham.  

Happy Sewing!

Thursday, 30 November 2017

November in Review...


I had some sewing plans this month. How many were crossed off the list?  

  1. Make a sweater or two with Simplicity 8529.  I actually make two.  One was my toile and the second version has received a lot of wear throughout the month.  
  2. Make that beautiful Paco Peralto skirt, Vogue 1567.  I didn't get around to this project yet.  
  3. Make Vogue 9268 in a cotton knit fabric.  I can cross this one off the list but I'm not 100% thrilled with my fabric choice. Don't get me wrong, I love the fabric. It's just that Vogue 9268 needs a fabric with some drape. Even though I do have cotton fabric that has some drape I went with a beefier cotton batik that had a generous width. There will be another remake in the future, I'm sure.  In the meantime, I been wearing my new dress. No need for it to go to waste.  

And there were more sewing projects that got made this month.  

First row L to R:  Reusable cotton grocery bags, no pattern used (blog post coming up in a couple of days); cotton microwave cozies, no pattern used. Second row L to R:  cotton sleepwear bottoms, Vogue 9217; cotton sleepwear top, Butterick 6296; black wool knit top, Simplicity 8529 (red knit top shown on original blog post); cotton knit dress, Vogue 9268 and Vogue 9057. Third row L to R:  cotton microwave cozies, no pattern used; black and white cotton skirt, out-of-print Vogue 9951; reusable cotton grocery bags, no pattern used; and cotton knit panties, Simplicity 8229.  

RTW & Fabric Fasts:

I'm happy to report that I have managed to stay away from RTW clothing besides the odd window shopping. It's a good confidence booster when you see something in the store and know that your sewing skills have improved to the point that you can chose better quality fabrics and sew with techniques not found in RTW garments. The fabric fast failed but in my defence I picked up fabric for projects for others. 

The Stats:

Quantity Used from the stash this Month 
Quantity Used this Year
Added to the Stash this year
Basting Tape
0.36 metres
6.29 metres
Bias Tape
 4.15 metres
32.95 metres
10 metres

Cord Stopper

8.4 metres
38.3 metres
38 metres
 17.9 metres
140.5 metres
Fusible Tape
3 metres
44.26 metres
6 rolls
Hand needles

Hook and Eyes

1.2 metres
11 metres
6 metres
Lace trim
2.6 metres
Pattern (new)
Pattern (previously used--TNT)

1.1 metres
5.3 metres
Serger needles

Serger thread

Sewing machine needles

0.1 metres
4.2 metres
7 metres


So what do I have in store for next month?

  1. I would really like to work on that Oki Style shirt pattern I picked up last year. 
  2. Vogue 1567 is still on my wish list. If I make it in the red plaid silk I have in my stash, it would be something that I can wear to the theatre in a couple of weeks. And it will be a fun Christmas skirt.   
  3. I want to finish that wool coat, another version of OOP Vogue 8934. It's cut out and started, I just have to focus on it.  
  4. And finish off a jumpsuit, it's almost done.  
  5. And there are some Christmas sewing projects in the works as well. 
  6. Oh and I have a few posts coming up about Make Something Week sponsored by Greenpeace and Fashion Revolution.  Stay tuned.    
On that note, I should get to work.  Happy Sewing!  

Tuesday, 28 November 2017

Psychological Prescription for Troubling Times

This weekend in the Globe and Mail, Nathalie Atkinson presented a fashion theory in her article, "Sparkle and Shine:  There's Never Been a Better Time to Adopt a Flamboyant Look". She pushes past the lipstick index as a reference to fashion's commentary on the economy. Instead, Atkinson refers to as the Rhinestone Index as a commentary on the dark times we're currently living in. 

Therma Kota's gold jacquard bomber jacket. {Source}
The Rhinestone index has nothing to do with the economy, rather it's psychology. All that glitters, shines and sparkles on the fashion runways is a reaction to the constant terrible news of the world.  

And yet, yesterday when the world heard the news of a royal engagement it was a simple non-decorated coat that crashed a fashion website as people flocked to find and sell out the simply designed coat.  

Meghan Markle wearing white coat by Canadian fashion brand Line the Label.

McCall's pattern company was quick to congratulate the happy couple and point consumers to the very similar pattern design that can be whipped up at home.

McCall's congratulatory instagram post {source}

Yes, indeed!  McCall's 7480 is a very strikingly similar design. And it quite easy to change the sleeve design to a two-piece more fitted sleeve if you're a looking for a copy-cat version. This instagram post received over 1,800 likes and surely some sewing machines will be humming away to capture this happy moment and recapture the concept of I dress, therefore I am.  

Maybe, yesterday's engagement announcement highlights Atkinson's point about the psychology of fashion with her new index. When there was finally some happy news for a change, the style called for some sophistication and grace over flashy. So the question remains, will you be sewing McCall's 7480 or will it be glitter and glamour coming out of your sewing room? I don't think I will be sewing either as right now as I'm busy working on a vintage pattern.  
Happy Sewing!  

Wednesday, 22 November 2017

In Sewing News Today...

It has now been three weeks since I stopped wearing man-made fabrics. My wardrobe has been cleared out and what remains are items made with cotton, cashmere, linen, or silk. And so far, there has been an noticeable difference in my sinus issues. It will be interesting to see if this continues for another two and a half months. In the meantime, I'm working on a new winter coat made out of all natural fibres since my winter coat has a Kasha lining and is underlined with micro-fleece.  

Even though it is cold enough to wear a winter coat, I'm distracted with another potential project. There is a new pattern in the collection, out-of-print (OOP) McCall's 6437 in the sizes that I need. Now I just need to decide on fabric. There is a beautiful grey coloured British wool that I'm tempted to use but I think I might make it in a blue cotton to test out the pattern.  

I'll have to put OOP McCall's 6437 in the smaller sizes up for sale in the Etsy shop since I won't need to grade the pattern. Oh and the Etsy shop has a sale going on for the next two weeks. All patterns, scarfs, stockings, and vintage items have been reduced by 20% and microwave cozies by 10% off. The sale ends December 6, 2017.  

It's hard to believe that Christmas is soon approaching. I'll need to get busy with gift giving sewing projects soon.  

Well, that is all in sewing news today.  

Happy Sewing!  

Tuesday, 21 November 2017

The Perfect Merger: Vogue 9268 & 9057

I first made Kathryn Brenne's dress, Vogue 9268, a few months ago and it has been on my wish list to make another. I love how comfortable this dress is to wear but even though I like the drape of the ITY knit, I really wanted one in a cotton jersey. The ITY knit was my toile before I cut into this fabric. Marcy Tilton's Vogue 9057 came into play when I was thinking about what I wanted to change. On Vogue 9268 the armhole sits a little low, almost a dropped armhole. It wasn't a big deal but while ironing my tee-shirt (yeah, I do that) it hit me that I like how the armhole and even the modified neckline fits. I wondered if these two pattern could work together.  

It turned out to be the perfect merger.  

I started out with matching the point where the underarm and side seam meet and then folded under and out of the way the bodice from the dress. From there I was able to cut the armhole, shoulder and modified neckline from Vogue 9057 and kept the shape of the side and skirt seams. This way I was able to achieve the rounded neckline that I preferred. The sleeve pattern that I used came from Vogue 9057 and there wasn't much difference besides the armhole shape. I also, as on the toile, eliminated the centre seams opting for the dress to be cut on the fold. The sleeve length was extended 1 1/2" and the skirt was shortened an inch.  

Instead of cutting the interfacing pattern pieces from Vogue 9268, I chose Knit-N-Stable tape to stabilize the hems and neckline edges.  

I can't be more thrilled with how it turned out. The fabric is a batik cotton jersey that I found at Northwest / Marshall fabrics and much to my surprise it is wider than 150 cm. It is the perfect width (170 cm) for the larger sizes as it can easily accommodate the full drape of the skirt. The fabric was pre-treated with a tumble through the washing machine and dryer prior to cutting it out. It will be washed in cold water and after this I will just hang it to dry as I don't want to risk it shrinking any more.  

The Stats:  

Fabric:  3.8 metres

Fusible tape:  3 metres

Sewing machine needle:  1 Ball point needle

Patterns:  Vogue 9268 and Vogue 9057

Additional Tools & Supplies:  Cutting table, pins, scissors, thread clippers, tailor's chalk, sewing machine, walking foot, tweezers, lint brush, serger, threads, iron, ironing board, and some good tunes.  

Happy Sewing!  

Monday, 20 November 2017

Panties: Simplicity 8229

Today, I spend some time making a couple more pairs of panties.  

Easy peasy sewing project. The fabric is a 95% cotton / 5% spandex knit. I have to say this is my go-to pattern for panties. Even though Simplicity 8228, another Madalynne design, is quite nice with the lace insets, there is something about this one that I prefer. The lace is cute but it's not really my thing. I like the simple and comfortable look when it comes to undergarments.  

The Stats:

Fabric:  1 metre

Elastic:  4.8 metres picot elastic

Thread:  1 spool finished off

Pattern:  Simplicity 8229

Additional Tools & Supplies:  Cutting table, scissors, pins, thread clippers, sewing machine, walking foot, ballpoint needle, threads, serger, tweezers, and tea.  

Happy Sewing!

Saturday, 18 November 2017

Pyjama Top: Butterick 6296

I chose this Lisette pattern, Butterick 6296, as the top half of my pyjama set and mixed up details between view A and B.

I wanted some piping and long sleeves and went from there.  I omitted the piping from the collar and front edge shown on view B, going for the clean finish illustrated in view A.  I kept the long sleeves, and at the last minute I changed my mind about the piping on the sleeve band. The only place I used piping was on the pocket facing. I cut the length shown in view A and went with the chest pocket instead of the patched hem pockets. And this is another reason why I like sewing, I'm in charge of the details that I find appealing and want.

The little chest pocket is more decorative than functional and I'm okay with that since the pockets on the matching pyjama pants are quite generous. The challenge of sewing the pocket on was eliminated with the aid of the jean-a-ma-jig®.

Back view.

The December 2017 / January 2018 issue of Vogue Patterns has an article titled, "Luxe Pajamas to Give or Keep" by Kathryn Brenne. It is a wonderfully detailed article on making a beautiful 100% silk crepe back satin pyjama set. My humble cotton jammies are not as fancy but I did take note of something that made my pyjamas special, a back neck facing.

A lot of vintage patterns from a certain age used to include back facings but you don't see them anymore. Kathryn Brenne is right with drafting this piece. I think it looks and feels great. I used the back pattern piece as a guide for the shoulder and neckline and then free hand drew the rest. I interfaced this piece, stitched it to the front facing, serged it and then stitched it in place after the facings and collar were sewn.

Grading the seam allowances.  
The fabric is a 100% cotton and was pre-treated as outlined in this post. The buttons may now be considered vintage. I picked up a box when Eaton's was closing down many moons ago. Even though they are suit buttons, they have become my go-to pyjama buttons over the years. The colour worked out perfect for this fabric.  

The Stats:  

Fabric:  2 metres

Interfacing:  1.2 metres fusible interfacing

Buttons:   5 - 19 mm 

Piping:   0.1 metre

Pattern:  Butterick 6296

Additional Tools & Supplies: Cutting table, pins, scissors, tailor's chalk, measuring tape, measure gauge, sewing machine, zipper foot, buttonhole foot, seam ripper, serger, thread, thread clippers, buttonhole cutter, tailor's wax, hand needle, and tea.  

Happy Sewing!    

Friday, 17 November 2017

Pyjama Bottoms: Vogue 9217

A designer Vogue pattern for pull-on pants with a shaped hem made the perfect pair of pyjama bottoms. 

The pattern is Kathryn Brenne's Vogue 9217 and I'm quite happy with how these turned out. They have generous pockets, an elasticized waist, and the cutest seam binded hem. There will defiantly be another pair or two in my sewing future. I'm thinking the reversible top that is part of this pattern along with another pair of pants would make a cute summertime outfit. But I digress...   

The fabric is a 100% cotton. It was pretreated with a cycle through the washing machine and tumble in the dryer followed by a pressing on the steam setting. The pattern was shortened by an inch and I had to grade the pattern up to a large to provide the amount of ease I want for pyjama bottoms. The pattern is a multi-sized pattern but I purchased the smaller size thinking that the loose-fitting description would be enough. Perhaps loose-fitting referred to the other garments in the pattern? Or maybe I need to do some more squats? Anyway, it all worked out perfectly.  

The Stats:  

Fabric:  2.2 metres

Elastic:  1.2 metres of 25 mm wide elastic

Seam binding:  1.65 metres

Pattern:  Vogue 9217

Additional Tools and Supplies:  Cutting table, pins, measuring tape, tailor's chalk, scissors, thread clippers, sewing machine, serger, thread, seam ripper, iron, ironing board, and tea. 

Happy Sewing!   

Thursday, 16 November 2017

National Button Day!

Today is National Button Day.

Clockwise top L to R:  recycled large black rose coat button, green and blue vintage buttons circa 1960s, vintage black and silver buttons, new burgundy shirt buttons, recycled large red decorative buttons, polka dot buttons, large rooster decorative button, red shirt buttons, and black and silver coat buttons.  
A day to celebrate buttons! When it comes to sewing clothes, I prefer using buttons to sewing a zipper. It's just easier to get in and out of a garment with buttons never mind replacement. I would much rather replace a button than replace a zipper! And buttons can be decorative besides functional. Sure, there are decorative zippers out on the market but do they really compare to these gorgeous buttons?  
There are so many buttons out there that are tiny pieces of art. Of course there would be a National Button day! If you're interested in reading a fascinating piece on the history of buttons and some beautiful visuals, I recommend this read.

Happy Sewing!  (with buttons!) 

Tuesday, 14 November 2017

In Sewing News Today...

Today started off with the heartbreaking news that Nancy Zieman passed away early this morning.

Back in September, not long ago, she wrote a message to her viewers that she would be retiring from her program and that the next fifteen new episodes would be her last. It was a terribly sad good-bye as she hinted that the end was near. I don't have a lot of words other than the sadness felt at this news.  Rest in peace gentle soul.  


In Sewing News Today...

Today marks the end of Make Something Week hosted by Greenpeace and Fashion Revolution. I love that it was held in December, when consumeri...